How are generators transpiled to ES5


I was curious how ES7’s async/await works under the hood, but then I quickly realized this goes deeper than I had initially thought. It’s a good idea to take a look at ES6’s generators first in this post.

What are JavaScript generators

A generator is a type of functions in JavaScript that can return at specified points, stopping their execution, and which can later be continued again. Legend says they can be used to write asynchronous code in a more straight-forward manner. At least once you got used to their, admittedly, weird syntax which looks like this:

function *add(x) {
    let y = yield(x*5)
    return x + y

// generators are executed through iterators
let iterator = add(2)   // creates a new iterator passing 2 as x
// first next() call never needs and argument
// and runs until first yield, which returns 5*x
console.log(    // {value: 10, done: false}
// Communication through yield can be both ways
// pass an argument to next() for the y value, run until return
console.log(   // {value: 5, done: true}

Let’s unravel this syntax to more familiar ES5 JavaScript.

Can generators be used in ES5?

Yes, using babel you can transpile them to ES5 JavaScript. You need to install babel-polyfill which uses the regenerator runtime for generator support.

To better understand how generators work, I ran babel on the following code:

function *foo(a) {
    const b = yield(a + 1)
    let sum = b
    // try a scoped variable
        const a = 1 + (yield a) // returns undefined
        sum += a
    const c = yield
    sum += a + c
    return sum

var it = foo( 1 )  // creates a new iterator

// runs until first yield and waits for input. Argument to next() is discarded     // {value: 2 (a+1), done: false} 2 )  // {value: undefined, done: false} 3 )  // {value: undefined, done: false} 4 )  // {value: 11 (1+2+(3+1)+4, done: true}

The output after running babel is the following:

function foo(a) {
    // 1. Define all variables used inside the function
    var b, sum, _a, c;
    // return Iterator
    return regeneratorRuntime.wrap(function foo$(_context) {
        while (1) {
            switch (_context.prev = {
                case 0:     // label: line number 0
           = 2;  // go to line 2
                    return a + 1;

                case 2:     // label: line number 2
                    b = _context.sent;  // argument passed with
                    sum = b;
                    // try a scoped variable

           = 6;  // go to line 6
                    return _a;

                case 6:     // label: line number 6
                    _context.t0 = _context.sent;    // argument passed with
                    _a = 1 + _context.t0;
                    // returns undefined
                    sum += _a;
           = 11; // go to line 11

                case 11:    // label: line number 11
                    c = _context.sent;  // argument passed with

                    sum += a + c;
                    return _context.abrupt('return', sum);  // actual return sum, instead of yield

                case 14:    // label: line number 14
                case 'end':
                    return _context.stop();
    }, ...);

var it = foo(1); // creates a new iterator

// runs until first yield and waits for input. Argument to next() is discarded; // {value: 2 (a+1), done: false}; // {value: undefined, done: false}; // {value: undefined, done: false}; // {value: 11 (1+2+(3+1)+4, done: true}

The transformed code might look intimidating, but it is actually easy to understand. Here’s the basic outline how generators are transpiled to ES5:

  1. Define all variables at the beginning of the function
  2. Split the original function into segments of lines of code whenever yield is encountered.
  3. The regeneratorRuntime keeps state in a _context object which handles the two-way communication - returning values and taking arguments - coming from yield:
    • It keeps a next object pointing to the next lines of code to execute. This is like setting the program counter / instruction pointer in assembly or a go-to directive.
    • Whenever is called, the object obj is stored in _context.sent.
    • Some special instruction for the return code.

This means there’s a simple simulation for generators by stateful functions.

Hi, I'm Christoph Michel 👋

I'm a , , and .

Currently, I mostly work in software security and do on an independent contractor basis.

I strive for efficiency and therefore track many aspects of my life.