How to write pandoc plugins in Nodejs


Pandoc is a great tool to transform text formats yinto other text formats. I use it to create PDF / HTML / epub / mobi versions out of my book from my Markdown files.

It comes with plugins (pandoc filters) that allow transforming the AST (abstract syntax tree) of your text files, so you can build your own syntax and make it do pretty much anything. The idea is similar to other AST transformation frameworks that you might know, such as jscodeshift or remark. While pandoc and its plugins are mainly written in Haskell, you can also write them in JavaScript using Node.js.

We will write and test a plugin that allows including source code from your file system in code blocks. The full-featured plugin is available on GitHub as pandoc-code-file-filter.


A pandoc plugin is a binary file that can be passed as an option to running the pandoc command:

pandoc <args> --filter path/to/pandoc-filter-binary

Which means we will start by setting up an NPM project and creating a bin/filter.js file with the #!/usr/bin/env node preamble. We need to install pandoc-filter-promisified which includes the pandoc bindings.

Our binary file uses this library and applies an action function to whatever pandoc sends to our filter.

#!/usr/bin/env node

const pandoc = require('pandoc-filter-promisified')
const action = require('../src/index.js')


If you want to publish your pandoc-filter through NPM, you need to reference the binary file in the package.json as "bin": { "pandoc-code-file-filter": "bin/filter.js"}

The main part of our logic will be implemented in our src/index.js file. The entry point of a pandoc plugin is an action file. It is passed each block of the AST and some meta information about the conversion happening.

const fs = require('fs')
const path = require('path')
const pandoc = require('pandoc-filter-promisified')

const { CodeBlock } = pandoc

async function action(elt, pandocOutputFormat, meta) {
  if (elt.t === `CodeBlock`) {
    // console.warn(JSON.stringify(elt, null, 4));
    const [headers, content] = elt.c

    const includePath = getIncludeHeader(headers)

    // it's a normal code block, no need to do anything
    if (!includePath) return

    // filter out the include value if another filter processes this code block
    const newHeaders = filterOutOwnHeaders(headers)
    let newContent = replaceWithFile(include)

    return CodeBlock(newHeaders, newContent)

module.exports = action

The elt object describes a node of the syntax tree. Its type can be checked with the t key and its header and content can be read by accessing the c key. Admittedly, these names and keys look like someone who spent too much time in Haskell came up with them. Also, there is no official documentation for these types. I found it easiest to check the source code of pandoc-filter-node and log the results.

Here, we check if the type is a CodeBlock and check if an include is specified in the headers.

function filterOutOwnHeaders(headers) {
  const [_, classes, keyValuePairs] = headers

  const newKeyValuePairs = keyValuePairs.filter(
    ([key, value]) => key !== `include`
  const newHeaders = [headers[0], headers[1], newKeyValuePairs]

  return newHeaders

function getIncludeHeader(headers) {
  const [_, classes, keyValuePairs] = headers

  const keyValuePair = keyValuePairs.find(([key, value]) => key === `include`)

  if (!keyValuePair) return false
  return keyValuePair.value

This would match the following code block in Markdown:


After extracting the include information, we can read the file using Node.js and replace the CodeBlock’s content with the file content.

function replaceWithFile(include) {
  if (!fs.existsSync(include))
    throw new Error(
      `pandoc-code-file-filter: File does not exist: "${path.resolve(include)}"`

  const fileContent = fs.readFileSync(include, 'utf8')
  return fileContent

Replacing the AST is done by simply returning a new node in the action function. We call the CodeBlock constructor with the new headers (old headers minus our include header) and the new file content.


To test if our filter works, we can write some jest tests.

Our example Markdown file will have the following contents:

``` {.javascript include=./test/examples/example.js}
Replace me

The example.js file with the content we want to include is just a normal JS file.

We can now run pandoc using our filter on the Markdown file and verify pandoc’s output using jest’s snapshot testing. Create the test in test/index.test.js:

const { execSync } = require("child_process");

function execPandocOnFile(fileName) {
  const stdout = execSync(
    `pandoc -s -t markdown test/examples/${fileName} --filter bin/filter.js`
  return String(stdout);

test("replaces code block content with file content", () => {
  const output = execPandocOnFile(``);

Here, I ran pandoc to create another Markdown file as the output. The new Markdown output is saved as a snapshot test, which makes it a lot easier as a human to verify than the AST.

You can now publish the pandoc filter on NPM and people can install it with npm -g your-pandoc-filter.

And that’s all you need to know to get started with developing your own pandoc plugins. ✨

Hi, I'm Christoph Michel 👋


I'm a , , and .

I mostly do and help small to mid-sized teams from all over the world 🌎 on both short and long-term projects on an independent contractor basis.

I strive for efficiency ⏱️ and therefore track many aspects of my life.